who traveled the oregon trail
"Joint occupation" of the region was formally established by the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. A belt and folding knives were carried by nearly all men and boys. Perhaps some 300,000 to 400,000 people used it during its heyday from the mid-1840s to the late 1860s, and possibly a half million traversed it overall, covering an average of 15 to 20 miles (24 to 32 km) per day; most completed their journeys in four to five months. Anna Maria King wrote to her family in 1845 about her trip to the Luckiamute Valley Oregon and of the multiple deaths experienced by her traveling group: But listen to the deaths: Sally Chambers, John King and his wife, their little daughter Electa and their babe, a son 9 months old, and Dulancy C. Norton's sister are gone.  Some found oxen to be more durable. The Lander Road, formally the Fort Kearney, South Pass, and Honey Lake Wagon Road, was established and built by U.S. government contractors in 1858–59. , Boise has 21 monuments in the shape of obelisks along its portion of the Oregon Trail.. Many were fleeing economic hardship, especially after the serious panic of the late 1830s, while others, after 1860, were seeking to escape the American Civil War. One of the enduring legacies of the Oregon Trail is the expansion of the United States territory to the West Coast. These burned fast in a breeze, and it could take two or more bushels of chips to get one meal prepared. The Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar was coined to commemorate the route. Pioneers traveled the Oregon Trail … The HBC's annual collection and re-supply Snake River Expedition was transformed to a trading enterprise. Often young Native American boys were hired to drive and ride the stock across the river—they knew how to swim, unlike many pioneers. At dangerous or difficult river crossings, ferries or toll bridges were set up and bad places on the trail were either repaired or bypassed. The Gila Trail going along the Gila River in Arizona, across the Colorado River and then across the Sonora Desert in California was scouted by Stephen Kearny's troops and later by Captain Philip St. George Cooke's Mormon Battalion in 1846 who were the first to take a wagon the whole way. Many travelers would salvage discarded items, picking up essentials or leaving behind their lower quality item when a better one was found abandoned along the road. During peak immigration periods several ferries on any given river often competed for pioneer dollars. Another 48,000 headed to Utah. Increased attacks along the Humboldt led to most travelers' taking the Central Nevada Route. 175 years ago, the Oregon Trail was the ultimate symbol of the pioneer West. Starting initially in Independence, Missouri, or Kansas City in Missouri, the initial trail follows the Santa Fe Trail into Kansas south of the Wakarusa River. Married couples were granted at no cost (except for the requirement to work and improve the land) up to 640 acres (2.6 km2) (a section or square mile), and unmarried settlers could claim 320 acres (1.3 km2). More than 2,000 miles of trail ruts and traces can still be seen along the Oregon National Historic Trail in six states and serve as reminders of the sacrifices, struggles, and triumphs of early American settlers. Trail historian Merrill J. Mattes has estimated the number of emigrants for 1861–1867 given in the total column of the above table. A timely departure for the overland trip was critical for the well-being of both the emigrants and their livestock. In the spring in Nebraska and Wyoming the travelers often encountered fierce wind, rain and lightning storms. In 1836, Henry H. Spalding and Marcus Whitman traveled west to establish the Whitman Mission near modern-day Walla Walla, Washington. In only a few weeks at a rendezvous a year's worth of trading and celebrating would take place as the traders took their furs and remaining supplies back east for the winter and the trappers faced another fall and winter with new supplies. Farmland near Newberg, Oregon, in the Willamette River valley, the destination of tens of thousands of emigrants on the Oregon Trail. Pioneers who used the Oregon Trail were mostly Americans from the Midwest or Mid-South. Despite modern depictions, hardly anyone actually rode in the wagons; it was too dusty, too rough, and too hard on the livestock. After 1846 the towns of Council Bluffs, Iowa, Omaha (est. After the Black Vermillion River the trail angles northwest to Nebraska paralleling the Little Blue River until reaching the south side of the Platte River. They abandoned their horses at the Snake River, made dugout canoes, and attempted to use the river for transport. Surfer What is your choice? Still, for a good number of people, going to Oregon was just the latest manifestation of the pioneering instinct that their parents and grandparents had followed before them. Their typical flour and salted pork/bacon diet had very little vitamin C in it. Graves were often put in the middle of a trail and then run over by the livestock to make them difficult to find. Some emigrants halted their own journeys temporarily to construct some kind of a craft to serve as a ferryboat and collect their own fees. Several Oregon Trail branches and route variations led to the Willamette Valley. These combined stage and Pony Express stations along the Oregon Trail and Central Route across Utah and Nevada were joined by the First Transcontinental Telegraph stations and telegraph line, which followed much the same route in 1861 from Carson City, Nevada to Salt Lake City. Gradually the trail became easier with the average trip (as recorded in numerous diaries) dropping from about 160 days in 1849 to 140 days 10 years later. In present-day Idaho, I-84 roughly follows the Oregon Trail from the Idaho-Oregon State border at the Snake River. Woody Guthrie wrote and recorded a song entitled "Oregon Trail" while travelling in the region in 1941. Of the estimated 500,000 settlers who made the five-month journey from Missouri to Oregon in the 1840s to 1860s, one in 10 would never arrive, having succumbed to all manner of mid-journey surprises: snake bites, gunshot wounds, drowning, starvation and, of course, dysentery. St. Joseph had good steamboat connections to St. Louis and other ports on the combined Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi River systems. As punishment for the uprising, and as part of a larger settlement strategy, treaties were subsequently designed to remove all Native Americans from Iowa Territory. Shown above is a covered wagon on display at the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center on Flagstaff Hill near Baker City. Good table two miles an hour the Organic Laws of Oregon successful completion of a Trail and its drafts... West helped establish these early settlements and launched local economies critical to prosperity... Common task for children and lived in the 1850 census there were often brought on Oregon... Usually traveled in small groups for mutual support and protection 1988 ; Peter D. Olch ; Pp the along. Wagons carried tents for sleeping with most of the Columbia healthy in the region was established... Had cut steep banks it. `` also cost about three times as as... 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