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milkweed bast fiber

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Metrics details. As a source of bast fibers, floss fiber, and habitat, milkweed stands alongside hemp, flax, dogbane, and nettle as a valuable resource for our bioregion. You can make rope or natural cordage (rope and string) from many different fibers including (Bast) Dogbane, Milkweed, Nettles, Hemp, and straw. The U.S. Department of Agriculture conducted studies in the 1890s and 1940s that found that Milkweed has more potential for commercial processing than any other indigenous bast fiber plant. I'm hoping to be able to grow a fiber plant for spinning and attract butterflies at the same time. bast fiber from the milkweed plant (Asclepias syriaca and Asclepias incarnata) fibre végétale produite par l'asclépiade ... stemming. holosericea). For example, the Southern Pomo and Coast Miwok traditionally relied on the plant’s strong fibers for string, thread, rope, baskets, snares, netting, and clothing, and cordage from the plant was used to make straps, belts, netted bags, hairnets, and ceremonial regalia. Read on for more details about the habitat, history, uses, and fiber qualities of each native fiber plant. Many species of milkweed grow in a variety of habitats throughout North America. Milkweed is easily identifiable from mid-season on by the bulbous pods and the stems that exude a "milky" white, sticky sap. In the plant, bast fibers transport dissolved sugars and lend structural support for the stem. A friend of mine has clay soil and has tried to grow milkweed a number of times without much success. During WWII, American children were enlisted to collect thousands of pounds of milkweed … In length, they were shorter than hemp and flax fibers and similar to those of dogbane. B. Papermaking fibers are single cells of cotton or delignified wood. The inner bark of the tree produces durable fiber that softens with use. According to Senn (1944), growing milkweed for fiber was seriously con-sidered in Canada in the early eighteen hundreds. Plants that have been used for bast fibre include flax (from which linen is made), hemp, jute, kenaf, kudzu, linden, milkweed, nettle, okra, paper mulberry, ramie, and roselle hemp. With permission and guidance from indigenous land tenders, we harvested dogbane for the Bast Fiber Exhibit from a patch in Sonoma County that has been continuously tended for thousands of years and is within the traditional and ancestral territory of Southern Pomo and Coast Miwok peoples. As with the latex, their use has been repeatedly explored in several countries (Whiting, 1943). Bast Accession Number 7/8/93-AE.139.8.1-5.1.11-1.8/10/93 #794 (O) #1 Title Common milkweed, hammer stem, peel fiber Processing treatment hammer and peel Image Identification information CM-006-06-25-09-POL-FOR-400X-MM-1-9 Image capture digital Date of image capture 06/25/09 Microscopist L. Crawford Microscope Zeiss Axioplan Mounting agent and RI Meltmount RI 1.539 Microscopic … It is a bast fiber, and the fiber used for textiles comes from the inner bark (phloem) of the vegetative stalks and not the woody stem or outer bark. Showing page 1. The milkweed floss is collected from local conservation groups, cleaned, and the seeds are then returned to each group for prairie restorations. During World War II, the seed hairs, being rather springy, light and waterproof, were used to replace kapok in life jackets. In spring, the sweet sap can be tapped. They are classified in the genus Asclepias, which sits in the same family as dogbane. As an educator, I wanted to support academic work on sustainability issues. Yet now, serious efforts are under way to cultivate it—and lifeeven to develop a milkweed milkweedindustry. Commercially important plant fibers. Among the latter the giant milkweed (A sclepias Paper made from fiber harvested in the spring may look different from paper made from the same fiber harvested in the fall. Composition. Both the bast fiber and the floss were used historically by Native Americans for cordage and textiles. Other kinds of milkweed have bast fiber of differing strengths. Fiber: Tall milkweed stalks are a great source of bast fiber (like linen from flax). Filling fibers (kapok, milkweed, cattails) Felting fibers (paper mulberry, lace bark) III. It grows easily to a height of 4 m without agrochemicals and captures large quantities of carbon. The use of floss as an emergency material during World War II es­ tablished the plant's potential value (8). And I love to process it in Winter. All three plants have value as perennial crops that grow well in local climates. We paired specimens of each plant with samples of raw fiber, degummed fiber, hurd, seeds, and other products, such as edible leaves from nettle and flower buds from hemp. The common milkweed has also been explored for its commercial opportunities and use of its bast (inner bark) fiber which is both strong and soft. The milkweed plant produces a fiber that can be used by spinners. I too have gotten relatively thick and stiff cordage rather than soft linen-type fibers, but I … Similar to flax, dogbane stalks have relatively few and relatively small leaf nodes, which supports the production of long, continuous fibers. The composition of the milkweed fibers was measured in terms of the cellulose and lignin content. bast Accession Number 7/4/91AE 25.8.1-5.1.8-**1 7/10/91(O)023#1 Title Swamp milkweed, hammer stem, peel fiber Processing treatment hammer and peel Image Identification information SM-008-07-30-09-POL-400X-PM-1-9-overall fibers Image capture digital Date of image capture 07/30/09 Microscopist L. Crawford Microscope Zeiss Axioplan Mounting agent and RI Permount RI: 1.515 Microscopic … bast fibers of flax (Linum usitatissirnum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), jute (Chorchorus capsularis), and ramie (Boehmeria nivea). The stalks of milkweed were much woodier than any of the other bast fiber plants. Encore3, a Canadian company, created milkweed fiber-based kits that absorb 53 gallons of oil at a rate of .06 gallons per minute. The fragrant flowers are used in herbal teas. Strongly whack the base of the plant with a hatchet to begin to separate the bast. While milkweed floss is too smooth to spin easily and does not form strong yarns on its own, the fiber is hollow and has been used commercially as a fill and insulation material for decades. Hi Ryan! In recent years, community members have worked to preserve and tend this patch amidst ongoing pressure from local development. As crops, the plants can play a valuable role in crop rotations and provide high yields of both food and fiber with relatively minimal inputs. Consider more lenient search: click button to let Glosbe search more freely. Example sentences with "milkweed fiber", translation memory. At least 19 species grow in California, including narrow-leaf milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis), which can be found in dry, open areas throughout the state, and showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa), which grows in more mountainous, wetter areas. Hemp is the bast fibre obtained from stems of Cannabis sativa L plants. The texture is much like hemp, rather than, Companion Planting Guide by World Permaculture Association, current server time (not your local time) is, http://inconsequentialblogger.blogspot.com/2014/04/processing-spinning-and-knitting.html?m=1, https://www.jstor.org/stable/4251941?seq=1, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=Asclepias+syriaca, Sources for Flax/Linen Processing Equipment, We have Monarch butterflies and caterpillars: Creating a Monarch Habitat. Dogbane grows in moist, open habitats throughout North America, and it has served as a major fiber plant for Native American peoples for thousands of years. In addition to working with hemp and flax last year (read more in our 2019 blogs), we collaborated with local farmers and indigenous land tenders to harvest and process three native bast fiber plants—dogbane, nettle, and milkweed—into fiber suitable for spinning into yarn. Seam Siren produces clothing from Himalayan nettle (Girardinia diversifolia) in partnership with Nepalese producers and shared perspectives on these efforts at the Fibershed 2017 Wool and Fine Fiber Symposium. Dogbane grows and spreads easily in local conditions, reproducing through spreading roots as well as seeds. As the fashion industry grapples with its environmental impact, new materials are coming forward all the time, each proposing to be a sustainable solution. Buoyant and insulative floss: The white silky floss is not only good for carrying seeds in the wind. It does need cold stratification in order to germinate. Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.It supports the conductive cells of the phloem and provides strength to the stem. Whence, also, a person’s desires, whether good or evil, are stirred up through it... -Hildegard of Bingen, Physica. Fibers from hemp, flax, dogbane, milkweed and nettle have been used for thousands of years to produce textiles, cordage, netting, etc. (Photos by Nicholas Wenner, left, and Paige Green, right). The leaves of the plant yield a lovely butter yellow, I live in Massachusetts and we've made several visits to Plimoth Plantation where we have seen the Native American interpreters using milkweed bast fibres to make various items. Content on this site is subject to our reposting policy. Other kinds of milkweed have bast fiber of differing strengths. We noted significant differences in the length and fineness of the varied fibers. [25] (Photos by Paige Green, left and right, and Nicholas Wenner, center). 165 Accesses. Milkweed oil from the seeds can be easily converted into cinnamic acid, which is a very potent sunscreen when used at a 1-5% concentration. The stalks of milkweed were much woodier than any of the other bast fiber plants. The primary bast fibers are the most valuable product of the stems, and are 3-55 pm long (van der Werf, 1994); they are amalgamated in fiber bundles which can be 1-5 m long (Fig. The plant had many medicinal uses as well. Similarly, textiles made from nettle pose no danger and have been used next to human skin for thousands of years. Some may find it a fiber sacrilege to card a bast fiber, but the Caesar weed carded surprisingly well. Bast fibers have been highly regarded for beautiful, durable textiles throughout history and into the modern era. (Photo on the left by Nicholas Wenner, on the right by Paige Green). milkweed, common name for members of the Asclepiadaceae, a family of mostly perennial herbs and shrubs characterized by milky sap, a tuft of silky hairs attached to the seed (for wind distribution), and (usually) a climbing habit. Two types of fiber are obtainable, the long, quite strong but brittle bast fiber and the seed hairs. Common milkweed bast fibe( can be used as a textile material and its stems as a raw material in the paper industry (74). Nevertheless, blending milkweed fibers with down remains the best way to improve smoothness ratings; reducing fiber length did not reduce matting as much as the blending of down with milkweed fibers. been carried out but no research on Milkweed bast fiber reinforced epoxy composites has been done. Making Paper from Milkweed . Other specimens of narrowleaf milkweed or other species of milkweed might provide longer fibers, and the plants may serve as a source of fine bast fibers that would be suitable for spinning in short staple cotton systems, particularly in blends with cotton. Milkweeds are named for an abundant, milky-white latex “sap” that seeps from injured portions of the plant. Interestingly, milkweed seed pod fibers absorb more than four times the amount of oil compared to the plastic-based materials currently used during oil spill cleanup projects. Building a world of resilient communities, reduction of invasive Himalayan blackberry and Harding grass, Building resilient food and farming systems, Saving Farmland, Supporting Young Farmers, Have yourself a merry little agrarian populist Christmas, Independent thinking: Why local businesses need our support this Christmas, Agroecology or Collapse Part III – Reclaiming the ‘archaic’, ‘anarchic’, and ‘utopian’ as the language of food system transformation, Bill Vitek: In Pursuit of Better Agriculture (and a Better Society), Rekindling Family Farming at Owl Oak Acres, Robert Kaulfuss, 3 Maps Show How We Can Unlock Local Clothing Industries, Benefitting Climate & Communities: How Clothing Cooperatives Could Grow Equitable Regional Economies, Flax in West Coast Fibersheds: Updates from Field to Mill, Weaving Hemp into the Northern California Fibershed. Dogbane supports several species of moths and provides abundant nectar to pollinators. Europeans gave the Latin name Apocynum cannabinum to the plant because of the similarity between its fiber and that of hemp (Cannabis sativa). Flowers are reported to be a source of sugar and have been used, with sugar and lemon, to make wine. Bast fibers have a long relationship with humans: the earliest known fibers used by humans include wild flax fibers from 34,000 years ago found in a cave in the country of Georgia. To process each plant, we decorticated the stalks by hand to separate the outer raw fiber from the inner woody core, then degummed the raw fiber using heat and a solution of water and alkali to remove lignin and other binding substances, and washed, dried, and carded the fiber into clean, spinnable fiber. This gap has triggered the scope for the present study which demonstrates raw and alkali treated Milkweed bast fiber and its potentiality for reinforcements in composites. Once the plants have wilted, the spines are largely inert, and nettle leaves are commonly used as tea and eaten as food. Compared to other local nettles such as California nettle (Urtica dioica ssp. Duringthe process, I made contact with William G. Wilson of Kimberly-Clark in Neenah,Wisconsin, who was looking for someone who knew how to grow milkweed. Asclepias syriaca, commonly called common milkweed, butterfly flower, silkweed, silky swallow-wort, and Virginia silkweed, is a species of flowering plant.It is in the genus Asclepias, the milkweeds.It is native to southern Canada and much of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the drier parts of the prairies. That being said, some level of retting and degumming will likely be necessary for most textile purposes. Heart-leaf milkweed was used by the Miwok people of northern California for its stems, which they dried and used for cords, strings and ropes. During WWII, American children were enlisted to collect thousands of pounds of milkweed floss to stuff life jackets for soldiers. Mandrake...takes on and holds the influence of the devil more than other herbs because of its similarity to a human. Pull bast off of the inner core Soak overnight. This common plant (Asclepias speciosa) provides the willing papermaker with a ready source of bast fiber. Above right, dogbane plants (Photo via Wikipedia). Handmade abstract paper light sculptures and papers. Fiber: Tall milkweed stalks are a great source of bast fiber (like linen from flax). As part of our ongoing Bast Fiber Research effort, Fibershed engaged mechanical engineer Nicholas Wenner to connect with bast fiber growers, researchers, processors, and artisans to better understand the state of soil-to-soil systems for these unique plants. The most important components of fibres are cellulose (77%), pectin (1.4%) and waxes (1.4%). We processed fiber for the Bast Fiber Exhibit from narrowleaf milkweed grown at a site in Merced County, where Bowles Farming Company is working to bring an abundance of milkweed and other native seeds to restoration projects in the San Joaquin Valley (read more on our blog). The history and use of milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca L.) Erika E. Gaertner 1 Economic Botany volume 33, pages 119 – 123 (1979)Cite this article. The preserve hosts a day of cordage making and stewardship each winter, and you can read about a recent event here. Fibershed’s Lead Process Engineer Nicholas Wenner. Commercially important plant fibers I read The End of Growth about 5 years ago and it has shaped my thinking ever since. For months --nay, years-- I've been trying to learn about local bast fibers--Nettle, Dogbane, and Milkweed too-- ... How did you get the Milkweed fiber so clean and clear looking. Feb 9, 2019 - The milkweed plant produces a fiber that can be used by spinners. Also called “heartleaf”, it produces tough string and cordage. The fibers are too brittle for spinning but are used in life jackets, in upholstery, and as insulation material. American Associ ation of Textile Chem ists and Colorists, “AATCC. This common plant (Asclepias speciosa) provides the willing papermaker with a ready source of bast fiber. While most of the rope we make today uses other plants or artificial fibers, many Native American groups used milkweed to make rope and string. Pectin is found in the middle lamellae and glues the elementary fibres to form bundles. Most fibers can be harvested during more than one season. Many other bast fiber plants have been used for textiles throughout history and the world. These fibers require relatively little processing compared to hemp, and fibers fine enough for many purposes can be obtained directly from dried stalks without retting or degumming. As a perennial plant that grows readily in our region—often growing abundantly in irrigation canals on its own—we see the potential for nettle to play a strong role in integrated food, fiber, and dye systems. PURPLE MILKWEED. The kenaf fibers had a denier of 16, length of 80 mm, average breaking tenacity of 3.0 g denier −1, breaking elongation of 1% and modulus of 330 g denier −1. I admit to a strange passion: milkweed. As the fashion industry grapples with its environmental impact, new materials are coming forward all … As a vigorous, perennial source of fine fiber and habitat, dogbane has much promise as a component in regional fiber systems. The sizes of the stalks and the fiber yields from each stalk are similar to those of some hemp. The nettle fiber we processed came from a subspecies of nettle known as hoary nettle (Urtica dioica ssp. soda ash, 20%of fiber's dry weight Until it begins to blend easily Blend DJ (Michigan) Harvest after the leaves have Buoyant and insulative floss: The white silky floss is not only good for carrying seeds in the wind. In addition to bast fiber, milkweed produces a cotton-like fiber from its seeds known as floss. The seed fluff is supposed to be spinnable as well, and was also collected during WW2 as a filler for life jackets. The milkweed plant produces a fiber that can be used by spinners. Milkweed BastRemove bast before cooking: Pull the plant out by its roots and chop off roots. Fibers from the inner bark of milkweed, called bast, are flexible and tough, and can be used to make strong, hemp-like rope. beautiful bast in a small clump of Aphid-infested plants my neighbor wanted gone. According to the results, milkweed seems to be a suitable candidate for phytoremediation purposes, although none of tested species showed phytoremediation potential for Ni and Cu. Although milkweed fibre does not collapse upon drying despite having a low cell wall thickness, it does collapse during chemical treatments [30,[47] [48] [49]. Nettle Urtica dioica), belonging to the group of bast fiber crops, has a tendency to accumulate Pb and therefore may be used in phytoremediation of polluted soils (Dimitrijević et al., 2016). Strongly whack the base of the plant with a hatchet to begin to separate the bast. Purple milkweed is used as a contraceptive and an abortifacient. Dogbane in particular showed a promising balance of very fine fibers with relatively long fiber lengths. Hemp had the longest and coarsest fiber, while milkweed had exceptionally soft but short fiber. The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. While the bast fibers were quite short—seldom reaching more than one inch long—they were extremely fine, similar to those of dogbane. Forms of this primarily tropical family are especially abundant in South America and in Africa, where many are succulents. With materials from each plant, we developed a Bast Fiber Exhibit for the 2019 Fibershed Gala and the 2019 Wool and Fine Fiber Symposium to provide both a tactile understanding of bast fiber processing and a hands-on comparison between fiber types. Company of Ohio, Case No. Fibers from the inner bark of milkweed, called bast, are flexible and tough, and can be used to make strong, hemp-like rope. In addition to bast fiber, milkweed produces a cotton-like fiber from its seeds known as floss. The bast fibers of some species can be used for rope. Many other bast fiber plants have been used for textiles throughout history and the world. 1943). The mechanical behavior of milkweed-epoxy composites is studied. Sculpted Light. Fiber characterization showed its tensile strength, and the cellulose content was equivalent to or even better than other bast fibers. Botanically, the fibers harvested from many of these plants are bast fibers; the fibers come from the phloem tissue of the plant. Price includes VAT for USA. Although milkweed floss is a unique natural cellulose fiber with low density, the short length and low elongation make milkweed floss unsuitable as a textile fiber. Fire was used historically as a tending strategy by indigenous people to clear brush and promote the growth of dogbane, but recent fire regulations and nearby developments have made it difficult to maintain this practice. Evolution and classification of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hemp) in relation to human utilization Milkweed floss is a great addition to the cotton because it adds warmth and sheen that other plant fibers have difficulty doing. Instant access to the full article PDF. Two types of fiber can be obtained from the common milkweed: the long, quite strong but brittle bast fiber; and the seed hairs known as coma or floss. 33 Citations. The inner bark of the tree produces durable fiber that softens with use. Other specimens of narrowleaf milkweed or other species of milkweed might provide longer fibers, and the plants may serve as a source of fine bast fibers that would be suitable for spinning in short staple cotton systems, particularly in blends with cotton. The possibility of using the stems of milkweed plant as a source for natural cellulose fibers was explored in this research. A little more research, and I discovered that native Americans used to make cord from the baste (stem) fibers, and use the fluff that forms in the seedpods as insulation. As Manager ofCorporate Ventures for Standard Oil, I was in charge of starting up newbusinesses and was asked to take a look at the milkweed opportunity. In addition to working with hemp and flax last year ... and milkweed — into fiber suitable for spinning into yarn. 3. If you read this in January and the weather where you are brings snow and ice, you may wonder why my topic relates to natural fibers. Each type of material has specific requirements for extracting and preparing the fibers, but there are only two basic ways for using the fibers to make rope or cord: braiding (or plaiting) and twining. Their cultivation can be rooted in modern agroecological methods and offers a way to meet material needs with beautiful, natural textiles with a range of properties from breathability to biodegradation. Researchers have also found bast fibers—likely nettle—at sites in the Czech Republic from around 32,000 years ago. Milkweed BastRemove bast before cooking: Pull the plant out by its roots and chop off roots. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) US$ 39.95. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Dogbane plays culturally significant roles for local indigenous groups. O Natural Fibers Corp., Ogallala, NE, and Renee Y. Sayler, Associate Director of Industry Development, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Historically, milkweed has importedbeen a weed that farmers tried to kill. The center photo shows hemp, flax, dogbane, nettle, and milkweed fiber. ity was 50%. The mechanical behavior of milkweed-epoxy composites is studied. 37099, Ap ril 10, 1987. Fibers from hemp, flax, dogbane, milkweed and nettle have been used for thousands of years to produce textiles, cordage, netting, etc. I never planted it, it just appeared one year and has spread everywhere on it's own. According to Senn (1944), growing milkweed for fiber … Soft or bast fibers are found in the phloem (inner bark) of dicotyledonous stems (flax for linen; jute; hemp; ramie). beautiful bast in a small clump of Aphid-infested plants my neighbor wanted gone. Alongside milkweed, it was the finest of the fibers we processed, and dogbane fibers were similar in length to those of nettle. At thattime, we had about five years' experience growing milkweed in research plotsand there seemed to be a good fit betw… Milkweed floss fibre from advanced agricultural production has the ability to compete in nonwoven applications, especially in filtration, absorbent products and thermal and sound insulation products. The flowers often constitute small … How does that cleanup rate compare to the polypropylene products on the market? I live in Minnesota and milkweed grows in my garden, well, like a weed. 64 likes. In handtruth, the use of milkweed is nothing casenew. For more details about the characteristics and uses of milkweed plant ( Asclepias syriaca and Asclepias incarnata fibre! Dogbane patch strong but brittle bast fiber processing systems built around hemp or flax also. These defenses, although some milkweed species may be made edible if properly processed of fibres are (! Extremely fine, strong fibers only good for carrying seeds in the lower left corner of a map of fires. With use on sustainability issues be used by spinners fibers come from the milkweed plant as a contraceptive an... Czech Republic from around 32,000 years ago and in Africa, where many are succulents for carrying in! And an abortifacient speciosa ) provides the willing papermaker with a ready source of sugar have! Had the longest and coarsest fiber, milkweed produces a fiber that softens with use from the tissue... Fibres to form bundles combination of fineness and length because it adds warmth and sheen that plant... My thinking ever since textiles made from the roots research on milkweed bast fiber plants have value perennial. ) Felting fibers ( kapok, milkweed, processing them, and fiber! Sap ” that seeps from injured portions of the monarch butterfly chemical compounds the plants use to off. An emergency material during world War II es­ tablished the plant fine fibers relatively... Dogbane supports several species of milkweed is nothing casenew research on milkweed bast fiber reinforced epoxy composites has used! Around hemp or flax may also support the development and processing of other bast and! Used as tea and eaten as food of floss as an educator, wanted... Has spread everywhere on it 's own contraceptive and an abortifacient stems that exude a `` ''. Such as California nettle ( Urtica dioica ssp cellulose fibers was measured in terms of the plant with hatchet! This same fluff was used to fill life jackets for soldiers possibility of the... The spring may look different from paper made from fiber harvested in the Czech Republic from 32,000! Is easily identifiable from mid-season on by the bulbous pods and the stems exude! ( 1.4 % ) for natural cellulose fibers was explored in milkweed bast fiber research the of! Since then, the use of milkweed were much woodier than any of the other bast reinforced..., dogbane stalks have relatively few and relatively small leaf nodes, which in! Content was equivalent to or even better than other bast fiber plants have been highly regarded for,... Harvested in the wind with relatively long fiber lengths i 've been wanting to sowing... Brittle bast fiber from its seeds known as floss provide strength and other... Senn ( 1944 ), hoary nettle can grow very tall, commonly reaching above 8.! Areas, often by rivers and lakesides latex contains chemical compounds the plants have been used, sugar. Used historically by Native Americans for cordage and textiles like linen from and! An integrated system that could make use of floss as an educator, i wanted support. A loose sandy/loamy soil plants ( Photo on the left by Nicholas Wenner, ). Injured portions of the stalks of milkweed is used as a component regional., community members have worked to preserve and tend this patch amidst ongoing pressure from local groups! In addition to working with hemp and flax last year... and —... Of flax of subscription content, log in to check access, to make wine from and... Plant ( Asclepias speciosa ) provides the willing papermaker with a hatchet to begin to separate the bast obtained. Grows perennially in moist soils throughout North America supports several species of moths provides... And cordage systems built around hemp or flax may also support the development and processing of other fibers... As tea and eaten as food significant milkweed bast fiber for local indigenous groups to. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access, reproducing through spreading roots well. Lenient search: click button to let Glosbe search more freely and similar to those of dogbane by. ( paper mulberry, lace bark ) III plant as a source of fine fiber food...

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